For years, the government employed traditional methods of combating fraud, waste and abuse. Regulation of Medicaid involved issuing payment to providers for patient services, then later chasing down recoveries on payments deemed improper. On average, this method recovered only 17 percent of improperly billed funds. Slight adjustments to these efforts occurred over time, including the passage of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) in 1996. HIPAA aimed to combat fraudulent business practices under the traditional fee-for-service healthcare system. Due to numerous revisions, exceptions and interpretations, however, HIPAA has grown convoluted and ineffective.